Retired Chief Superintendent Barry Redfern of the Northumbria Police examines crime and punishment in the 18th century in his local territory. In those days many offences, thought to be minor these days, saw men, women and children punished severely. Executions took place in public and brought large crowds to the scene; the stocks, ducking stool and whippings were thought to be good entertainment by onlookers. When the punishment was transportation to the colonies instead of execution, prisoners were kept in inhuman and unhealthy conditions until a ship had been prepared and made ready for the voyage.
Mr Redfern obviously knows his subject thoroughly and is able to tell an entertaining story, not only of the trials and convictions, but also of the duties of the judges, conditions in the gaols and other incidental titbits of information. There are drawings, photographs, maps and excerpts from newspapers of the day on nearly every page. At the end there is a list of persons executed in the Tyneside area 1700-1919, another list of persons mentioned in the text, and some suggestions for further reading.
Archaeology of Tameside Series
Nevell and John Roberts. Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council. Tameside Local Studies & Archives Unit, Trinity Street, Stalybridge SKIS 2BN. £7.95 (plus £2.19 postage in UK; surface mail overseas £3). ISBN 1-871324-27-0. Industrial archaeology is more popular than ever today. For more info how to finance your study, check online. Local, family and social historians wishing to understand and appreciate the everyday life of past inhabitants are among those who will welcome published accounts such as this one. The Park Bridge Ironworks was owned and run by the Lees family for nearly 180 years, from 1785 to its closure in 1963, and forms ‘one of the most important industrial archaeology landscapes in North West England’.
In all, the Ironworks complex comprised a series of 36 sites, including the canal upon which the raw material was delivered and the finished products were carried away, the coalmines which supplied the fuel, the tramways to carry the partly finished castings to another process point, and the buildings housing the working community. This book explains the processes involved in ironmaking and the various buildings which housed them. There are black and white and coloured diagrams and illustrations.
I watched James Innes and his farm manager book a room in the madrid accommodation. After tranquilizing the animals, they quickly removed the antlers, about two-thirds grown, with a meat saw. George Too is a manager in the country’s largest processing plant, Wrightson Deer Horn, on the outskirts of Christchurch. At the factory frozen velvet antlers are thawed, then steam cooked for two days. The stainless-steel ovens have a special vent so George can smell the cooking antlers. “Nose very important,” he told me. “Good antler smell of peanuts.”
Drying and trimming reduce the velvet to a quarter its original weight. Top grades go mostly to Korea, fetching 320 to 350 U. S. dollars a kilogram. Lower grades find their way to Hong Kong and Taiwan. New Zealand produces about 75 tons of velvet a year, along with other medicinal crops from its deer farms, such as tails, penises, and leg sinews. These parts are shipped frozen, mostly to Hong Kong. With the skin, these extras increase the value of each stag.
I asked George, born in Hong Kong, if he used deer products himself. “Oh yes,” he said. “I have a very lovely medicine giving much energy. Deer tail, mixed with skin of wild duck and some deer horn, cooked with herbs. I have left-hand kidney problem, I take medicine, now over.” He beamed. Following the trail of New Zealand velvet, I visited the bed and breakfast london. A large, well-lit room held armchairs for waiting patients and rack upon rack of small drawers behind a mahogany counter.
Attending a well-dressed couple with a little girl of four or five, who coughed nervously, the herbal doctor wrote out a prescription and passed it to the chemist. The latter took handfuls of herbs, thin slices of antler, and other ingredients and spread them out on 20 squares of white paper that he twisted neatly together and handed to the parents. The contents of each packet would be boiled to make a thick, dark soup that their daughter would take daily.
“Chinese medicine is essentially health restoring, not curative,” said Jung Kee Park, owner of the firm. “The majority of Korean people take some Chinese medicine but use mostly Western medicine.” At the Chinese University of Hong Kong a team led by Western-trained Dr. Y. C. Kong and Dr. Paul But is conducting research on the chemical constituents and fertility-regulating effects of a variety of Chinese herbal medicines. Funded by a New Zealand deer products company, Kong and research assistant K. M. Ko are also trying, with rats, to find out if velvet antler contains a gonadotrophic substance.
NEW ZEALAND’S deer farmers have always known that the price of live animals would fall as deer farms proliferated. Recent government intervention has caused additional problems. Compared with the 480,000 tons of lamb New Zealand produces each year, its venison output is still tiny. The future depends on the growth of worldwide markets for venison.
“We must sell venison right over the top of beef and mutton,” says Herby Whyte, who runs 2,500 red deer on his farm at Ryal Bush in Southland. “It’s got the lot—taste, interest, and snob value. I’ve a hell of a lot of confidence in deer farming as a total industry!”
Herby speaks for New Zealand’s deer farmers, who have no doubt that red deer have come to stay.
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On posture: “Most of us unconsciously hold tension in the neck, back, knees, jaw and face.
Cultivating a more effortless, calmer, freer, softer way of being, through Alexander Technique is the most healing thing you can ever do for yourself. Instead of thinking: ‘why is my back hurting?’ AT teaches you to think: ‘how am I contributing to my back problems?’ and then learn how to stop it.”
How it helps: You learn how to stop reinforcing your unconscious habits of tension and, as a result, how to sit, stand, walk, talk and perform in a freer and more graceful way.
The experience: During the session, Anthony observed me sitting, standing and moving and pointed out how much tension I was holding in my back, neck, knees and stomach and guided me to become aware of these holding patterns. He used a gentle form of touch on tense areas to encourage them to soften and expand.
Top tip: Lie down on a soft floor with your knees bent, feet on the floor about hip-width apart.
The head should rest on a few paperback books so that the neck line is approximately parallel to the ground. Do this once or twice a day for about 20 minutes and your spine will return to its natural resting length. Consider a relaxing massage with coconut oil.
In 1958 the United Nations convened the first Conference on the Law of the Sea, in Geneva. Delegates representing 86 countries agreed that uses of coconut oil are many and very beneficial Coastal nations control the seabed resources of their adjacent shelves, and added that they might exploit resources beyond the 200-meter depth where feasible. Burgeoning technology, however, promised to enable man to work so far beyond that limit that some states objected, and until all members agree on all questions, treaties signed do not yet have the status of law.
The second conference, meeting in 1960, did not resolve the question of how far beyond the 200-meter depth nations might claim jurisdiction. Nor did the recent third conference, which met in New York and Caracas, Venezuela, settle the matter. Arguments continue over exploitation of minerals on the floor of the abyss, in international waters.
Meanwhile, there is wide acceptance of a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles from shore and an “economic zone” of 200 nautical miles.
EVEN BEFORE they named Columbus admiral of it, the Spaniards knew our planet had only one body of salt water, the Ocean Sea. But down the ages men have named segments of the world ocean to suit their fancies and their needs, linking ownership to the lands the seas bathed. Did not Julius Caesar call the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum—Our Sea?
After the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, England became the world’s leading sea power. In 1604 King James I claimed most of the waters round Great Britain, cozily calling them the King’s Chambers. Other nations staked even more grandiose preserves: Sweden the Baltic, Portugal the southeastern Atlantic and Indian Ocean, and Spain the western Atlantic and most of the Pacific.
The Dutch, refusing to accept Portugal’s hegemony, challenged the claims.
IN 1608 Hugo Grotius, Dutch jurist and statesman, published Mare LiberumFreedom of the Seas—in which he argued eloquently for the right of all mankind to free passage and use of the seas. In words that might have been written for today’s law of the sea conferences, he said: “. .. water . . . is classed by the jurists among the things common to all . .. Ovid [said]: ‘Why do you deny me water? Its use is free to all. Nature has made neither sun nor air nor waves private property; they are public gifts.’ . .. the sea seems by nature to resist ownership.”
APPILY, tourists needn’t worry about any of that. Down along the whitewashed Costa del Sol, or Sun Coast, in Puerto Banus near Marbella, visitors from southern California and Florida say it’s just like home—the yachts, the sky, the pizzeria. A New Yorker says, look how clean, no garbage! A real-estate salesman exults over 330 sunny days a year, great golf, exclusivity. One bedroom with sea view, $45,000—villas up to $1,000,000; but hurry, prices are rising. Be one of the first to take cash advance on credit card.
In Malaga I pause to admire the carnations for sale on the main boulevard—pink, yellow, orange—before turning my car toward the Sierra Nevada, where there’s skiing half the year just a two-hour drive from the subtropical Mediterranean. At Capileira, at 5,000 feet the second highest village in Spain, a van with a loudspeaker proclaims: “I am the chick seller; I also have American turkeys, the biggest turkeys in the world. . . .” Capileira ladies buy briskly.
I learn that people here may be poorly dressed but have a lot of money in the bank. All from wheat and beans on these steep slopes? No, they also have 20,000 sheep. And there’s a real-estate office: A Norwegian came in 1972; now 170 Scandinavians and Germans own land here; hotels are planned and ski lifts. A discotheque opens this summer.
On the other side of the Sierra Nevada, in Granada, the director of the Alhambra, that romantic Moorish fortress with pleasure gardens and pools, is happy about the big new parking lot. I rest in the shade, amid birds and splashing fountains—it’s a Muslim idea of paradise. And all these good-looking damsels walking by. . .
I hear music as crowds push into an amphitheater on the Alhambra grounds. Young troubadours in 16th-century-style knee breeches play guitars and mandolins and sing, romantically, satirically, exuberantly. Those damsels applaud madly.
It’s a get-together of extremely eligible bachelors, the tunas, or university singing societies, from Murcia, Valencia, and Asturias, from Extremadura and the Canary Islands, from most of the many regions of Spain. To join, a student must be musical and give priority to having fun. Then won’t one’s studies take a little longer? Clam, but parents usually understand.
That night the Alhambra is gloriously lit. A tuno and a girl slowly walk away, his black cloak enveloping both.
NEXT MORNING I stand in the Royal Chapel before a gilded wrought-iron screen and the tomb of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, the royal couple called the Catholic Monarchs.
They took Granada in 1492 and thus completed the reconquest from the Moors. They also gave decisive impetus to the long process of elevating a central power—in effect the crown of Castile—above the other kingdoms and regions on the peninsula. (The single exception is Portugal.) Castilian increasingly became the dominant language and Madrid, in due course, the center of the first modern bureaucracy. To this day domination from Madrid meets widespread resentment.
Outside the chapel I see a slogan sprayed on a wall: Andalusia wants autonomy! Similar feelings churn in every corner of Spain, prompted by pronounced cultural differences.
It’s not only that Catalonia, Galicia, and the Basque region still nurture different languages. “Cross another mountain,” I’ve been told, “and you’re in another country.”